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Tuesday, 25 December 2018

Indus Valley Civilization | History, Location, Map & Facts - Ancient History of Indian Subcontinent

Indus civilization | History, Location, Map & Facts - Ancient History of Indian Subcontinent

On the banks of the Indus River in modern day Pakistan, one of the world's earliest civilizations grew and flourished between c.2700 and 1750 BC. It was centred on the citites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, each of which contained up to 40,000 people. Large public buildings, built of mud bricks, show that the civilization was prosperous. We know little about day-to-day life of Indus Valley citizens, except that they traded with Sumeria and may have practised an early form of Hinduism. Their civilization mysteriously collapsed after 1750 BC; this may have been due to invasions, or the river Indus changing its course. 
It was in 1922, a great discovery took place. It carried the date of Indus civilisation far back. It was proved that Indian subcontinent had a civilisation long back. The credit of this discovery goes to two famous historians, Rakhal Das Banerjee and Dayaram Sahni. By archaeological excavation in the Punjab and Sindh, they dug out the remains of two ancient cities. One was Harappa, situated in the Montgomery district of Punjab on the bank of the river Ravi. The other was Mahenjo-Daro situated in the Larkana district of Sindh.
The word Mahenjo-daro means ‘Mound of the dead’. Harappa and Mahenjo-daro were lying under the earth for several years.Their discovery brought to light a new chapter of ancient India. The world came to know that Ancient Civilisation also dawned on the soil of Indian subcontinent, as in Egypt or Mesopotamia.

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Mohenjo-Daro - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus valley cities were planned and built on a grid pattern. They had broad main roads and narrow lanes. Drains carried away the household waste All the houses were built around central courtyards. During the day, people lived and worked in these courtyards. 

Ancient Script - Indus Valley Civilization
Archeologists have found stone seals in a script unlike any other ancient form of writing. When long texts are found, scholars can often decipher them - but the Indus Valley inscriptions are very short, so their meaning remains a mystery. 

Religion - Indus Valley Civilization
Little is known about the Indus religion. The importance of water, shown by the existence of bath house, has led some scholars to link with later Hinduism. Various statues have been found that may represent gods and goddesses. 

Crafts - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus valley people were skilled potters and metalworkers. They made fine painted vessels, terracotta statues, and beautiful gold jewellery. They also learned how to blend copper and tin to produce bronze. 

Agriculture - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus civilization agriculture was extremely productive; finally, it had been capable of generating surpluses spare to support tens of thousands of urban residents Most of the people weren't primarily engaged in agriculture. It relied on the extended technological achievements of the pre - Harappan culture. Still, little or no is thought regarding the farmers supported the cities or their agricultural ways. A number of them beyond question created use of the fertile soil left by rivers when the flood season, however this easy technique of agriculture isn't thought to be productive enough to support cities. There's no proof of irrigation, however such proof might be obliterated by continual, ruinous floods.

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history of indus valley civilization

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