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Tuesday, 25 December 2018

United Nations - UN | History, Organization, Functions, & Facts

United Nations - UN | History, Organization, Functions, & Facts
After the end of Second World War, Allied countries fighting the Nazi Germany, Italy and Japan, came together to form an International organization aimed to maintain peace and harmony throughout the world. United Nations aims for security, developing friendly relations with countries, solving international disputed peacefully, achieve international cooperation. United Nations has seven organs.

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United Nations Headquarters
United Nation headquarter is located in New York ,USA. Further, main branches are in Nairobi, Geneva and Vienna.

United Nations History
The member countries after the end of World War II, met in San Francisco in 1945 and formed the UN. During its foundation, there were 51 countries, but as of 2018, there are 193 members. United Nation has been successful in many areas like War, Cooperation, Security, International Issues of concern. United Nations also has organs related to cultural and heritage issues. United Nations has brought many countries closer and has created platform to bring countries closer. 

United Nations General Assembly 
The main forum in the united nation is the General Assembly. Every member state sends one delegate to the UN Assembly , which meets for four months a year. Decisions are made by a simple majority vote, unless they are so important that they require a two thirds majority. The assemble has few powers, but it does serve as an International parliament in which member states can discuss issues of mutual concerns. 

United Nations Security Council
The most powerful part of United Nation is the security council. The council has a membership of 15, comprising five permanent members - USA, China, Russia, France and UK and 10 members elected for two years term by the UN General Assembly. The Security Council can meet anytime and can call on the armies of member states to enforce its decision.  

United Nations International Court of Justice
International legal disputes between nations are settled at International Court at the Hague in Netherlands. The court consist of 15 judges elected by Security Council and the General Assembly and makes decision by majority Vote.
Recently, a case was brought in International Court of Justice (ICJ) by India related to the imprisonment of Indian Citizen in Pakistan on the charges of espionage. The Indian citizen was charged by Pakistani Military Court without giving any consular access to India. India successfully won the case and the punishment was halted by ICJ. Many such cases have been resolved in the International Court of Justice. 

Secretariat of the United Nations
The day to day administration is in the hands of Secretariat. The staff of secretariat comes from every nation and works both in headquarter of UN in New York and in any country in the world where UN is active. 

Secretary General of the United Nations
The Secretary of the United Nations is the most powerful person in the organization who is elected after every five years by the General Assembly. Following is the list of Secretary of the UN:

No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office Notes
1 Trygve Lie  Norway 2 February 1946 10 November 1952 Resigned
2 Dag Hammarskjöld  Sweden 10 April 1953 18 September 1961 Died in office
3 U Thant  Burma 30 November 1961 31 December 1971
4 Kurt Waldheim  Austria 1 January 1972 31 December 1981
5 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar  Peru 1 January 1982 31 December 1991
6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali  Egypt 1 January 1992 31 December 1996
7 Kofi Annan  Ghana 1 January 1997 31 December 2006
8 Ban Ki-moon  South Korea 1 January 2007 31 December 2016
9 António Guterres  Portugal 1 January 2017

 Some notable works of United Nations :
  • Kashmir Dispute 1948 UN resolution
 United Nations intervened in the Kashmir war of 1947-48 and passed a resolution , thus temporarily ending the bloodied war between two newly independent nations India and Pakistan.
  • Korean War
Korean War between South and North Korea was fought between 1950-53. United Nations led the ceasefire and ended the war. 

United Nations, though has been successful in many fields, still it faces many challenges in 21st century. Many issues are still unresolved and cooperation between countries is very much needed to solve many issues. 

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