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Indiafacts provide information related to India and contains large number of articles on India. India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with rich cultural heritage. Find articles and essays on various topics.

Showing posts with label World. Show all posts
Showing posts with label World. Show all posts

Tuesday, 25 December 2018

Indus Valley Civilization | History, Location, Map & Facts - Ancient History of Indian Subcontinent

Indus civilization | History, Location, Map & Facts - Ancient History of Indian Subcontinent

On the banks of the Indus River in modern day Pakistan, one of the world's earliest civilizations grew and flourished between c.2700 and 1750 BC. It was centred on the citites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, each of which contained up to 40,000 people. Large public buildings, built of mud bricks, show that the civilization was prosperous. We know little about day-to-day life of Indus Valley citizens, except that they traded with Sumeria and may have practised an early form of Hinduism. Their civilization mysteriously collapsed after 1750 BC; this may have been due to invasions, or the river Indus changing its course. 
It was in 1922, a great discovery took place. It carried the date of Indus civilisation far back. It was proved that Indian subcontinent had a civilisation long back. The credit of this discovery goes to two famous historians, Rakhal Das Banerjee and Dayaram Sahni. By archaeological excavation in the Punjab and Sindh, they dug out the remains of two ancient cities. One was Harappa, situated in the Montgomery district of Punjab on the bank of the river Ravi. The other was Mahenjo-Daro situated in the Larkana district of Sindh.
The word Mahenjo-daro means ‘Mound of the dead’. Harappa and Mahenjo-daro were lying under the earth for several years.Their discovery brought to light a new chapter of ancient India. The world came to know that Ancient Civilisation also dawned on the soil of Indian subcontinent, as in Egypt or Mesopotamia.

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Mohenjo-Daro - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus valley cities were planned and built on a grid pattern. They had broad main roads and narrow lanes. Drains carried away the household waste All the houses were built around central courtyards. During the day, people lived and worked in these courtyards. 

Ancient Script - Indus Valley Civilization
Archeologists have found stone seals in a script unlike any other ancient form of writing. When long texts are found, scholars can often decipher them - but the Indus Valley inscriptions are very short, so their meaning remains a mystery. 

Religion - Indus Valley Civilization
Little is known about the Indus religion. The importance of water, shown by the existence of bath house, has led some scholars to link with later Hinduism. Various statues have been found that may represent gods and goddesses. 

Crafts - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus valley people were skilled potters and metalworkers. They made fine painted vessels, terracotta statues, and beautiful gold jewellery. They also learned how to blend copper and tin to produce bronze. 

Agriculture - Indus Valley Civilization
Indus civilization agriculture was extremely productive; finally, it had been capable of generating surpluses spare to support tens of thousands of urban residents Most of the people weren't primarily engaged in agriculture. It relied on the extended technological achievements of the pre - Harappan culture. Still, little or no is thought regarding the farmers supported the cities or their agricultural ways. A number of them beyond question created use of the fertile soil left by rivers when the flood season, however this easy technique of agriculture isn't thought to be productive enough to support cities. There's no proof of irrigation, however such proof might be obliterated by continual, ruinous floods.

Tags: harappan civilization, indus river, indus river valley, indus valley civilization for kids,
history of indus valley civilization

Tuesday, 4 December 2018

Central Asia | Information | Quick Guide | Central Asia Facts | Central Asia Countries

Central Asia Countries, Facts, Quick Guide

Central Asia lies in the central part of Asian continent. Central Asia religion is mainly Islam followed by Christianity and various other religions. Central Asian people belong to various ethnicity like Uzbek, Tajik, Kazhak, Kyrgyz, Afghan.  Central Asian countries are Uzbekistan, Tajikistan Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan. Central Asia and Russia share a long history as both were part of USSR until 1991.
Central Asia is mostly Arid Desert and mountainous, central Asia is made up of five nations. The Silk Road, an ancient date route between China, Middle east, and Europe, once passed though the region, boosting the textile industry and making handwoven rugs from Central Asia world famous. From 1922 to 1991, the whole area, apart from Afghanistan, was part of the Soviet Union. Under communist rule, the countries were partly modernized. Today, however, as independent nations they face an uncertain future. In 2001, Afghanistan was links to terrorist attacks of September 11 in the USA and was devastated by US-led reprisal bombings. Central Asia countries still have Soviet influence. Central Asian religion is majorly Islam followed by Christianity.
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Central Asia - Physical Features

Central Asia is covered by two hot, dry desert: the Karakumy and Kyzyl Kum. The rest is largely rugged mountain chains. There is a small area of farmland, which has been extended by irrigation.
Central Asia Desert - Kyzyl Kum
The name Kyzyl Kum means "red sands". The desert region lies south of Aral Sea, between the rivers Syr Daria and Amu Darya, mostly in Uzbekistan. Few people apart from nomads live here. Much of it is covered by low hills and sandy wastelands.
Tien Shan - Mountains of Central Asia
The literal translation of Tien Shan is Heavenly Mountains. This range of ice-capped peaks runs for about 3,000 km from eastern Kyrgyzstan into China. The highest point is Pobeda Peak, 7,439 m. It is used extensively for farming.
Regional Climate of Central Asia
Most of the region is cold in winter and very hot and dry in summer. Rainfall is uniformly low, which hampers farming. The mountain regions are always cooler than the lowlands, and many of the peaks are permanently covered by snow and ice.

Central Asian Countries

Turkmenistan
Basic Facts: 
Capital City: Ashgabat
Main Languages : Turkmen, Russian.
Currency : Manat
Only two percent of Turkmenistan's arid land can be farmed. With irrigation, cotton,fruit, wheat, and vegetables are produced. Many people live in nomadic tribes, and there is much inter tribal tension. Turkmenistan is world's largest producer of natural gas of 2007.
Akhal-Teke
Known as the "Wind of heaven", Akhal-teke race-horses have been bred in south of Karakumy desert for centuries. Fast, hardy, and well suited to hot, harsh climate, Akhal-Teke comete in traditional horse races at the Ashgabat hippodrome. 

Uzbekistan

Basic facts:
Capital City: Tashkent
Main Languages: Uzbek, Russian
Currency: Som
Although 80 percent of Uzbekistan is covered by dry steppe and desert, its area of fertile land and resources of oil gas, gold, copper, and coal make it one of Central Asia's wealthier countries. Fruits, silk coconuts, and vegetables are exported to Moscow. Uzbekistan has world's largest single gold mine. Uzbekistan is the world's fourth largest producer of cotton.
Samarakand
Home to 5,00,000 people, the ancient city of Samarakand was once the center for trade in silk from China. Today, the manufacture of silk and cotton textiles is still the city's main industry. Samarakand's Registan square contains some magnificent 14th century Islamic architecture.

Kyrgyzstan

Basic Facts:
Capital City: Bishkek
Main Languages: Kyrgyz, Russian
Currency : Som
Dominated by the arid Tian Shan mountains, Kyrgyzstan is a mainly rural country. Only seven percent of the land is cultivable. Half is used for growing fodder for livestock; the rest supports vegetables, wheat, fruit, cotton, and tobacco. The population of Kyrgyzstan is made up of 57 percent Kyrgyzstan people or Kyrgyz. The rest are mainly Russian ,Uzbek.

Resources of Kyrgyzstan
Gold and Mercury are mined for export, as well as smaller amounts of other minerals, including iron ore, tin, lead, copper, zinc etc. Kyrgyzstan has reserves of oil, coal, and gas, and its many rivers and lakes give it great potential for hydroelectric power.

Tajikistan

Basic Facts: Dushanbe
Main Languages : Tajik ,Uzbek
Major religion : Islam
Currency : Somoni
The poorest of the former Soviet republics, Tajikistan has been torn by civil war ever since independence. Though thins had improved in recent times. The main ethnic conflict is between Tajiks and Uzbeks. Tajikistan has rich mineral resources.

Afghanistan

Basic Facts: Kabul
Main Languages: Persian, Pashto, Dari
Currency: Afghani
Afghanistan has a long history of war. After years of civil strife, Afghanistan was further destroyed by US invasion of Afghanistan. since 2001. Afghanistan is world's poorest country. It has seen harsh rule of Taliban for many years who implemented various restrictions and harsh rules. Since US interference, Afghanistan has civilian government. India has helped Afghanistan improve a lot of infrastructure. Afghanistan still suffers a lot from terrorism.

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